An interesting story in Larry Ramsell's A Compendium of Musky Angling History reminded me of an old time musky guide who only used three lures: a black bucktail, a yellow bucktail, and a surface bait I can't remember.
If I were to outfit someone with the minimum musky lures they would be these:
An original floating Rapala minnow, 7". In gold, silver, or perch color.
A gold/ yellow Mepps Musky Marabou tail.
A silver/ white Rizzo Whiz
And a 9" Bull Dawg, any color.
If we could add to that list, I'd add a weighted Suick, a 12" Bull Dawg, a Luhr Jensen Woodchopper, any number of Rizzo Whizzes, a Rapala jointed original floating minnow, and a Slammer crankbait.
If you are looking to start your musky tackle box you can't go wrong with any of these.